Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2022)                   J Res Dent Maxillofac Sci 2022, 7(3): 155-161 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sarkarat F, Tootoonchian A, Mirpour S, Moogahi Nezhad M, Haeri Araghi S, Rakhshan V. Oral Symptoms and Factors Associated with COVID-19: A Case-Control Study. J Res Dent Maxillofac Sci 2022; 7 (3) :155-161
URL: http://jrdms.dentaliau.ac.ir/article-1-343-en.html
1- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department; Craniomaxillofacial Research Center, Tehran Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Farhikhtegan Hospital, Dental Branch, Tehran, Iran
2- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department; Craniomaxillofacial Research Center, Tehran Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Farhikhtegan Hospital, Dental Branch, Tehran, Iran , drtootoonchian@yahoo.com
3- Private Dentistry Practice, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (297 Views)
Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a serious pandemic situation. Assessment of associated factors contributing to its severity is of clinical significance. This study assessed the factors associated with COVID-19 and its severity.   
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we assessed self-reports of 93 COVID-19 patients and 50 healthy controls regarding demographics, smoking habit, sinusitis, rhinoplasty or tonsillectomy history, xerostomia, dysosmia, dysgeusia, taste disturbances (metallic taste and foul taste), and bleeding or inflammation in the oral cavity. Further admission to ICU or death were recorded later. We also assessed the patients’ laboratory tests including WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, C reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at the time of admission. Diagnosis of patients was based on clinical assessments, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computed tomography (CT) scan results. Healthy controls had no flu like signs and symptoms in the past 1 month prior to the study. Associations between the abovementioned factors and disease, and disease severity were analyzed by the Chi-square test, independent-sample t-test, one-sample t-test, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (α=0.05).
Results: Variables with statistically significant associations with COVID-19 included smoking (P=0.004), xerostomia (P=0.000),
dysgeusia (P=0.000), dysosmia (P=0.000), and taste disturbances (P=0.000). CRP (P=0.000), ESR (P=0.000), and neutrophil percentage (P=0.000) were also elevated in patients. Eosinophil (P=0.000) and basophil percentages (P=0.016) were lower than normal range in patients. Age was associated with death (P=0.010) and ICU admission (P=0.009).

Conclusion: Xerostomia, dysgeusia, dysosmia, and taste disturbances can be early markers of COVID-19. Older ages are prone to more severe forms of disease.
Full-Text [PDF 653 kb]   (126 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (92 Views)  

References
1. Bohmwald K, Gálvez NMS, Ríos M, Kalergis AM. Neurologic Alterations Due to Respiratory Virus Infections. Front Cell Neurosci. 2018 Oct 26;12:386. [DOI:10.3389/fncel.2018.00386] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Gorbalenya A, Baker S, Baric R, de Groot R, Drosten C, Gulyaev A, et al. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol .2020 March;5:536-44. [DOI:10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Keyhan SO, Fallahi HR, Cheshmi B. Dysosmia and dysgeusia due to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus a hypothesis that needs further investigation. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 Mar 30;42(1):9.
4. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z, Yu T, Xia J, Wei Y, Wu W, Xie X, Yin W, Li H, Liu M, Xiao Y, Gao H, Guo L, Xie J, Wang G, Jiang R, Gao Z, Jin Q, Wang J, Cao B. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):497-506. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5]
5. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, Si HR, Zhu Y, Li B, Huang CL, Chen HD, Chen J, Luo Y, Guo H, Jiang RD, Liu MQ, Chen Y, Shen XR, Wang X, Zheng XS, Zhao K, Chen QJ, Deng F, Liu LL, Yan B, Zhan FX, Wang YY, Xiao GF, Shi ZL. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020 Mar; 579 (7798):270-3. [DOI:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Wei Y, Xia J, Yu T, Zhang X, Zhang L. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):507-13. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7]
7. Yan CH, Faraji F, Prajapati DP, Ostrander BT, DeConde AS. Self-reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in COVID-19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020 Jul;10(7):821-31. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22592] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Song C-Y, Xu J, He J-Q, Lu Y-Q. COVID-19 early warning score: a multi-parameter screening tool to identify highly suspected patients. medRxiv 2020. [DOI:10.1101/2020.03.05.20031906]
9. Tan C, Huang Y, Shi F, Tan K, Ma Q, Chen Y, Jiang X, Li X. C-reactive protein correlates with computed tomographic findings and predicts severe COVID-19 early. J Med Virol. 2020 Jul;92(7):856-62. [DOI:10.1002/jmv.25871] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Yan CH, Faraji F, Prajapati DP, Boone CE, DeConde AS. Association of chemosensory dysfunction and Covid-19 in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 07; 10(7):806-13. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22579] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Menni C, Valdes AM, Freidin MB, Ganesh S, El-Sayed Moustafa JS, Visconti A, et al. Loss of smell and taste in combination with other symptoms is a strong predictor of COVID-19 infection. medRxiv. 2020:2020.04.05.20048421. [DOI:10.1101/2020.04.05.20048421]
12. Moein ST, Hashemian SM, Mansourafshar B, Khorram-Tousi A, Tabarsi P, Doty RL. Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020 Aug;10(8):944-50. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22587] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, Horoi M, Le Bon SD, Rodriguez A, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch torhinolaryngol. 2020 Aug;277 (8):2251-61. [DOI:10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, Hu Y, Chen S, He Q, Chang J, Hong C, Zhou Y, Wang D, Miao X, Li Y, Hu B. Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Jun 1;77 (6):683-90. [DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, Bernacchia D, Siano M, Oreni L, et al. Self-reported Olfactory and Taste Disorders in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Cross-sectional Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 28;71(15):889-90. [DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa330] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Moein ST, Hashemian SM, Mansourafshar B,Khorram-Tousi A, Tabarsi P, Doty RL. Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020 Aug;10(8):944-50. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22587] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Lechien JR, Hopkins C, Saussez S. Sniffing out the evidence; It's now time for public health bodies recognize the link between COVID-19 and smell and taste disturbance. Rhinology. 2020 Aug 1;58(4):402-3. [DOI:10.4193/Rhin20.159] [PMID]
18. Hopkins C, Surda P, Kumar N. Presentation of new onset anosmia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rhinology. 2020 Jun 1;58(3):295-8. [DOI:10.4193/Rhin20.116] [PMID]
19. Wehling E, Nordin S, Espeseth T, Reinvang I, Lundervold AJ. Unawareness of olfactory dysfunction and its association with cognitive functioning in middle aged and old adults. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2011 Apr;26(3):260-9. [DOI:10.1093/arclin/acr019] [PMID]
20. Beltrán-Corbellini Á, Chico-García JL, Martínez-Poles J, Rodríguez-Jorge F, Natera-Villalba E, Gómez-Corral J, et al. Acute-onset smell and taste disorders in the context of COVID-19: a pilot multicentre polymerase chain reaction based case-control study. Eur J Neurol. 2020 Sep; 27(9): 1738-41. [DOI:10.1111/ene.14273] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Bergmann CC, Lane TE, Stohlman SA. Coronavirus infection of the central nervous system: host-virus stand-off. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Feb;4(2):121-32. [DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1343] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Barthold SW, de Souza MS, Smith AL. Susceptibility of laboratory mice to intranasal and contact infection with coronaviruses of other species. Lab Anim Sci. 1990 Sep;40 (5):481-5.
23. Perlman S, Evans G, Afifi A. Effect of olfactory bulb ablation on spread of a neurotropic coronavirus into the mouse brain. J Exp Med. 1990 Oct 1;172(4):1127-32. [DOI:10.1084/jem.172.4.1127] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Burns EA. Effects of aging on immune function. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(1):9-18.
25. Sharma G, Goodwin J. Effect of aging on respiratory system physiology and immunology. Clin Interv Aging. 2006; 1(3):253-60. [DOI:10.2147/ciia.2006.1.3.253] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis. 2020 Mar 20;18:20. [DOI:10.18332/tid/119324]
27. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020;395:1054-62. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3]
28. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1708-20. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Liu W, Tao ZW, Wang L, Yuan ML, Liu K, Zhou L, Wei S, Deng Y, Liu J, Liu HG, Yang M, Hu Y. Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patients

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research in Dental and Maxillofacial Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb