Volume 7, Issue 3 (Journal of Research in Dental & Maxillofacial Sciences Summer 2022)                   J Res Dent Maxillofac Sci 2022, 7(3): 175-180 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


1- Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2- Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3- Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran , Katayoun.m.98@gmail.com
Abstract:   (181 Views)
Background and Aim: This study sought to review the role of aerosols and droplets in transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in dental practice .  
Materials and Methods: Published papers concerning the transmission routes of COVID-19 in dental environment were retrieved from the search engines, websites of related health organizations, and electronic databases. Out of primarily retrieved 120 articles, 40 articles met the inclusion criteria.
Results: Many Studies reported that the main transmission routes of COVID-19 were direct contact, droplets and aerosols. Because of the adjacency to the patient's oral cavity and use of aerosol-generating headpieces, dental practitioners are at high risk of COVID-19. Adherence to clinical protocols and guidelines in the working environment was highly emphasized in all studies to minimize the risk of infection and prevent cross-contamination in dental office setting.
Conclusion: Dental healthcare providers should be well aware of the most recent guidelines and protocols to prevent COVID-19 transmission and constantly update their knowledge in this regard.
Full-Text [PDF 720 kb]   (82 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (42 Views)  
Type of Study: Review article | Subject: Oral medicine

References
1. World Health Organization. WHO time line COVID-19. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19.
2. Ge ZY, Yang LM, Xia JJ, Fu XH, Zhang YZ. Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 and special precautions in dentistry. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2020 May;21(5):361-8. [DOI:10.1631/jzus.B2010010] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. To KK, Tsang OT, Yip CC, Chan KH, Wu TC, Chan JM, Leung WS, Chik TS, Choi CY, Kandamby DH, Lung DC, Tam AR, Poon RW, Fung AY, Hung IF, Cheng VC, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Consistent Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Saliva. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 28;71(15):841-3. [DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa149] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. World Health Organization. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19 implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations.
5. Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: a brief review of the literature and infection control implications. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Apr;135(4):429-37. [DOI:10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0207] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Gamio L. The workers who face the greatest coronavirus risk. The New York Times. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/03/15/business/economy/coronavirus-worker-risk.html.
7. Luzzi V, Ierardo G, Bossù M, Polimeni A. Paediatric Oral Health during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2021 Jan;31(1):20-6. [DOI:10.1111/ipd.12737] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.
9. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. COVID-19 Treatment Regimen. Available from: http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202002/8334a8326dd94d329df351d7da8aefc2.shtml.
10. Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, Mao YP, Ye RX, Wang QZ, Sun C, Sylvia S, Rozelle S, Raat H, Zhou H. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Mar 17; 9 (1):29. [DOI:10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Special Expert Group for Control of the Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association. [An update on the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Feb 10; 41 (2):139-44.
12. Rodríguez-Morales AJ, MacGregor K, Kanagarajah S, Patel D, Schlagenhauf P. Going global - Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Jan-Feb;33: 101578. [DOI:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101578] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Izzetti R, Nisi M, Gabriele M, Graziani F. COVID-19 Transmission in Dental Practice: Brief Review of Preventive Measures in Italy. J Dent Res. 2020 Aug; 99(9): 1030-1038. [DOI:10.1177/0022034520920580] [PMID]
14. Wu YC, Chen CS, Chan YJ. The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. J Chin Med Assoc. 2020 Mar;83(3):217-20. [DOI:10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Dave M, Seoudi N, Coulthard P. Urgent dental care for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2020 Apr 18;395(10232):1257. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30806-0]
16. Spagnolo AM, Sartini M, Cave DD, Casini B, Tuvo B, Cristina ML. Evaluation of Microbiological and Free-Living Protozoa Contamination in Dental Unit Waterlines. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 24;16(15):2648. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph16152648] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Interim infection prevention and control guidance for dental settings during the COVID-19 response. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/ hcp/dental-settings.
18. Szymańska J. Dental bioaerosol as an occupational hazard in a dentist's workplace. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(2):203-7.
19. Al-Eid RA, Ramalingam S, Sundar C, Aldawsari M, Nooh N. Detection of Visually Imperceptible Blood Contamination in the Oral Surgical Clinic using Forensic Luminol Blood Detection Agent. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2018 Jul-Aug;8(4):327-32. [DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_10_18] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Gawn J, Clayton M, Makeison C, Crook B. Evaluating the protection afforded by surgical masks against influenza bioaerosols: gross protection of surgical masks compared to filtering facepiece respirators. Buxton: Health and Safety Executive; 2008. 33. Report no. 1.
21. Wei J, Li Y. Airborne spread of infectious agents in the indoor environment. Am J Infect Control. 2016 Sep 2;44(9 Suppl):S102-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2016.06.003] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Cleveland JL, Gray SK, Harte JA, Robison VA, Moorman AC, Gooch BF. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens in US dental health care settings: 2016 update. J Am Dent Assoc. 2016 Sep;147(9):729-38. [DOI:10.1016/j.adaj.2016.03.020] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Aldahlawi SA, Afifi IK. COVID-19 in Dental Practice: Transmission Risk, Infection Control Challenge, and Clinical Implications. The Open Dentistry J. 2020;14:348-54. [DOI:10.2174/1874210602014010348]
24. Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). IPAC recommendations for use of personal protective equipment for care of individuals with suspect or confirmed COVID-19. Available from: https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents /ncov/updated-ipac-measures-covid-19.
25. Dentist's Advantage. Risk management alert coronavirus (COVID-19) and the dental practice 2020. Available from: https://www.dentists-advantage.com/ Prevention-Education/Risk-Alerts/Risk-Alerts-Index/ Con-tent/Coronavirus-(COVID-19)-and-the-dental-practice.
26. Center of Disease and Control. Infection Control: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ coro-navirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control recommendations. html.
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Interim infection prevention and control guidance for dental settings during the COVID-19 response. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus.
28. Eggers M, Koburger-Janssen T, Eickmann M, Zorn J. In vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine gargle/mouthwash against respiratory and oral tract pathogens. Infect Dis Ther. 2018;7(2):249-59. [DOI:10.1007/s40121-018-0200-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Ather A, Patel B, Ruparel NB, Diogenes A, Hargreaves KM. Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for Clinical Dental Care. J Endod. 2020 May;46(5):584-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.joen.2020.03.008] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020 Mar; 104(3):246-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022] [PMID] [PMCID]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.